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New images will be added to the CANTEACH Image Library soon. If you have CANDU related images that you would like to contribute to the CANTEACH library, please use the Submit Content form.

 New Images

 Reactor Drawings

Reactor Drawings - Wonderful wall chart drawings of nuclear reactors as published in Nuclear Engineering International, collected and reproduced by the University of New Mexico.

 Images By System

Selection CheckboxThumbnailDescriptionFilterPicture Size
Expand/Collapse SI‎(1)
Views for Image Library.accdb
620 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 00000 General Project ‎(6)
CANDU6_Const_Sequence.pdfCANDU 6 Construction Sequence
Carbon_Cycle.jpgGlobal Carbon Cycle Pools and Fluxes Billions of Tons and Billions of Tons /Year Global Carbon Cycle
1118 x 810211 KB
Chapter1Supplement-image1.pngThumbnail Timeline of significant discoveries
UNENE992 x 1274118 KB
Chapter6-image148.gifThumbnail Reactor generations
UNENE1280 x 720140 KB
Genealogy_Poster.jpgThumbnail CANDU: The Evolution
AECL1597 x 691299 KB
Genealogy_slide.jpgThumbnail Genealogy of CANDU Reactors
768 x 51293 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 03000 Engineering Science and Technology ‎(1)
Chapter13-image68.emfThumbnail Atmospheric dispersion
UNENE4348 x 212740 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 03300 Nuclear Engineering ‎(6)
20100100_Page_35_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 Control Centre
AECL2023 x 1268235 KB
bruce_simulator.jpgThumbnail Bruce Plant Simulator (Canada)
Bruce Power900 x 721748 KB
cernavoda1_simulator.jpgThumbnail Cernavoda 1 Plant Simulator (Romania)
SNN833 x 584533 KB
Chapter18-image1.pngThumbnail Transformation of specific isotopes
UNENE1453 x 108261 KB
qinshan_simulator.jpgThumbnail Qinshan Plant Simulator (China)
TQNPC1145 x 9001017 KB
wolsong2_simulator.jpgThumbnail Wolsong 2 Plant Simulator (Canada)
KHNP1122 x 9001017 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 10000 Site and Improvements ‎(15)
19980101_003.jpgThumbnail ZEEP exterior and interior view
AECL1024 x 768268 KB
19980101_004.jpgThumbnail Pickering G.S. site aerial view
AECL1024 x 768520 KB
19980102_004.jpgThumbnail Pt. Lepreau Site Photo
AECL1024 x 768364 KB
19980102_005.jpgThumbnail Wolsong Site Photo
AECL1024 x 768414 KB
19980102_006.jpgThumbnail unknown
AECL1024 x 768296 KB
19980102_007.jpgThumbnail Qunshan Phase III Sketch
AECL1024 x 768279 KB
19980104_008.jpgThumbnail Darlington Generating Station
AECL1024 x 768515 KB
19980104_011.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Single Unit Station Layout
AECL1024 x 768377 KB
20100100_Page_40_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 ACR-1000 Twin-Unit Power Block
AECL2196 x 1547134 KB
Darlington_Layout.jpgThumbnail Darlington Layout
OPG1338 x 912352 KB
Darlington_Reactor.jpgThumbnail Darlington Reactor
OPG788 x 944315 KB
PickeringA.jpgThumbnail Pickering A Aerial View
OPG3568 x 18321156 KB
Russian-Chernobyl.jpgThumbnail Russian Chernobyl
1506 x 868326 KB
Russian-Smolensk-Plan1.jpgThumbnail Plan of the Main Building at Smolensk
1352 x 896291 KB
Russian-Smolensk-Plan2.jpgThumbnail Cross Section of the Main Building at Smolensk
1288 x 1000465 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 20000 Buildings and Structures ‎(14)
19980101_007.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 and CANDU9 reactor building layout
AECL1024 x 768140 KB
19980101_008.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Nuclear Power Station 3D CADD rendering
AECL1024 x 768195 KB
19980101_017.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Control Room Depiction
AECL1024 x 768398 KB
19980105_016.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Containment System
AECL1024 x 768259 KB
20100100_Page_46_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 Typical Modules of the ACR-1000 Reactor Building
AECL2602 x 2921437 KB
C6-Gentilly2Photos.pdfCANDU 6 Gentilly 2 Photos
Chapter13-image10.jpegThumbnail ZED-2 top view
UNENE1024 x 793105 KB
Chapter13-image12.jpegThumbnail SL-1 cutaway
UNENE1429 x 1271586 KB
Chapter13-image43.jpegThumbnail Vacuum containment concept
UNENE1023 x 79287 KB
Chapter13-image8.jpegThumbnail SES-10
UNENE1544 x 1350243 KB
Chapter13-image9.emfThumbnail Zed-2 cutaway
UNENE760 x 7642259 KB
Chapter6-image002.gifThumbnail Typical CANDU plant
UNENE1280 x 72062 KB
Douglas Point 01.pngThumbnail Douglas Point Reactor Building - Looking South-West
OPG3947 x 53505813 KB
Douglas Point 02.pngThumbnail Douglas Point Reactor Building - Looking North-East
OPG4064 x 55596320 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 30000 Reactor, Steam Generators and Auxiliaries ‎(10)
BruceA-CalandriaFabrication.pdfBruce A Calandria and Shield Tank
Bruce A Calandria and Shield Tank during construction at Canadian Vickers, 1971-73
Individual Contributions7427 KB
BruceA-Reactor.gifThumbnail Bruce A Reactor Cutaway Illustration
OPG2025 x 2550218 KB
Chapter13-image14.emfThumbnail NRX elevation
UNENE1368 x 17189174 KB
Chapter1-image10.jpegThumbnail Simplified nuclear plant flow diagram
UNENE1288 x 593124 KB
Chapter1-image5.emfThumbnail Boiling Water Reactor
Diagrammatic cross section of a typical BWR (Boiling Water Reactor)
UNENE1161 x 12885832 KB
Chapter1-image6.emfThumbnail Typical PWR
Diagrammatic cross section of a typical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)
UNENE1336 x 13767171 KB
Chapter1-image7.emfThumbnail Typical PHWR (CANDU)
Diagrammatic cross section of a typical Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) (CANDU)
UNENE1785 x 147410265 KB
Chapter1-image8.emfThumbnail Typical Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR)
Diagrammatic cross section of a typical Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR)
UNENE1767 x 12468589 KB
Chapter1-image9.jpegThumbnail Typical RBMK
Diagrammatic cross section of a typical BRMK (LGR) - liquid graphite reactor
UNENE1802 x 1214284 KB
Chapter8-image14.jpegThumbnail HTS schematic
Diagrammatic arrangement of figure-of-eight heat transport system
UNENE1287 x 767164 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 31000 Reactor ‎(54)
19980101_009.jpgThumbnail CANDU - PWR Core Comparison
AECL1024 x 768286 KB
19980101_011.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor Assembly
AECL1024 x 768228 KB
19980101_012.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor Assembly
AECL1024 x 768166 KB
19980101_013.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 On-Power Fuelling
AECL1024 x 768148 KB
19980101_014.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 - Unique Features
AECL1024 x 768308 KB
19980101_015.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 On-Power Refuelling
AECL1024 x 768102 KB
19980101_016.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Thin-walled reator vessel.
AECL1024 x 76875 KB
19980102_002.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Calandria
AECL1024 x 768275 KB
19980102_008.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor Face
Feeder Cabinet, Feeder Pipes, Fuel Channels, Fuelling Machine
Bridge Assembly
AECL1024 x 768547 KB
19980102_009.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Fuel Channel
AECL1024 x 768338 KB
19980102_010.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Closure Plug, feeder Connection
AECL1024 x 768205 KB
19980102_011.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor Channel Positioning Assembly
AECL1024 x 768272 KB
19980102_012.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor Tubesheet Region
AECL1024 x 768411 KB
19980102_013.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor Channel - Spacer, Calandria Tube Connection
AECL1024 x 768239 KB
19980103_002.jpgThumbnail Wolsong Calandria in Shipping
AECL1024 x 768491 KB
19980103_012.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor Face
AECL1024 x 768458 KB
19980105_003.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor Assembly
AECL1024 x 768371 KB
19980105_004.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor End View
AECL1024 x 768375 KB
19980105_005.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reacto Side View
AECL1024 x 768245 KB
19980105_006.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactor Top View
AECL1024 x 768237 KB
19980105_007.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Reactivity Mechanisms deck
AECL1024 x 768254 KB
19980105_008.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Adjuster Rod Drive
AECL1024 x 768236 KB
19980105_009.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Shutoff Rod
AECL1024 x 768166 KB
19980105_011.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Safety Shutdown Systems
AECL1024 x 768342 KB
19980105_012.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Safety Shutdown Systems
AECL1024 x 768350 KB
19980105_014.jpgThumbnail CANDU Reactor Lattice Cell
AECL1024 x 768279 KB
20100100_Page_12_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 Reactor Assembly
AECL1598 x 1283140 KB
20100100_Page_13_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 Fuel Channel Assembly
AECL1599 x 1121177 KB
20100100_Page_23_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 Shutdown System No. 1 - Shutoff Units
AECL1195 x 946106 KB
BruceA-FC-LinerLatch.pdfBruce A Fuel Channel Liner Latch
A collection of photos showing the Brice A fuel channel liner latch.
OPG3202 KB
BruceAUnit3WestSideFC.pdfBruce A Unit 3 West Side Fuel Channel
Bruce-B-FC section.pdfBruce B Fuel Channel Section
BruceB-FC-Comparison.pdfBruce B - CANDU 6 Fuel Channel comparison
C6 FC Section.pdfCANDU 6 Fuel Channel Section
CANDU6_Reactor_Assembly.jpgThumbnail CANDU 6 Reactor Assembly
AECL686 x 876216 KB
Chapter1-image1.jpegThumbnail Nuclei - stable and unstable
Range of stable and unstable nuclides
UNENE814 x 1052112 KB
Chapter1-image2.jpegThumbnail Binding Energy
Figure 2 Binding Energy per nucleon
UNENE1104 x 95367 KB
Chapter1-image4.jpegThumbnail Nuclear reactor components
UNENE1074 x 674108 KB
Chapter21-image009.jpgThumbnail CANDU Basic Lattice Cell
Figure 2 Face View of the CANDU Basic Lattice Cell
UNENE820 x 726195 KB
Chapter21-image010.jpgThumbnail Supercell
Figure 3 Supercell for Calculation of Device Incremental Cross Sections
UNENE930 x 797175 KB
Chapter2-image18.jpegThumbnail Comparison of core sizes
UNENE802 x 31077 KB
Chapter3-image3.emfThumbnail U cross section
Figure 3 Fission and absorption characteristics of uranium
UNENE3129 x 2738368 KB
Chapter8-image2.jpegThumbnail Feeder tube assembly on reactor face
UNENE624 x 46960 KB
Darlington End Fittings.jpgThumbnail Darlington End Fittings
OPG1368 x 2100474 KB
Darlington FC original.pdfDarlington Fuel Channel
Darlington lattice site.pngThumbnail Darlington Lattice Site
OPG3108 x 73980 KB
Darlington rolled joint.pngThumbnail Darlington Rolled Joint
OPG1795 x 108165 KB
Douglas Point 03.pngThumbnail Douglas Point Reactor Core
OPG3736 x 55284922 KB
Douglas Point 04.pngThumbnail Douglas Point Coolant Assembly
OPG3736 x 26891567 KB
Douglas Point fuel changing.pngThumbnail Douglas Point fuel changing
OPG5651 x 43913183 KB
fuel bundle support.pngThumbnail Darlington Fuel Bundle Shift
Darlington: fuel bundle support on the inlet end at start of life at Darlington.  As the pressure tube elongates due to induced creep and growth, the force of the coolant flow pushes the fuel string towards the outlet, and the inlet fuel bundle slides to the right.
OPG1597 x 93271 KB
NPD_Reactor_Cutaway.jpgThumbnail Cut-Away of NPD
1114 x 1000354 KB
PickeringB-FC.pdfPickering B Fuel Channel
WR-1_Reactor_Cutaway.jpgThumbnail WR 1 Reactor Cut-Away
655 x 857232 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 32000 Moderator System ‎(7)
19980103_003.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Moderator
AECL1024 x 768182 KB
19980103_005.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Moderator Flow in Calandria
AECL1024 x 768193 KB
19980103_006.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Moderator System
AECL1024 x 768180 KB
19980103_007.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Moderator System 3D CADD rendering
AECL1024 x 768574 KB
CANDU_Moderator_Flowsheet.jpgThumbnail CANDU Moderator Flowsheet
2000 x 1000168 KB
Chapter2-image2.jpegThumbnail Moderator and coolant circuits
UNENE908 x 1228350 KB
Chapter8-image3.jpegThumbnail Moderator cooling and purification system
UNENE1265 x 1038164 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 32200 Moderator Purification System ‎(1)
19980103_004.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Moderator Sub-systems
AECL1024 x 768310 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 32700 Moderator Liquid Poison System ‎(1)
19980105_010.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Liquid Poison Injection Tube
AECL1024 x 768294 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 33000 Primary Heat Transport System ‎(23)
19980101_002.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 - Heat Transport System, PHWR - PWR Comparison
AECL1024 x 768142 KB
19980103_009.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Steam Generator
AECL1024 x 768360 KB
19980103_010.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Heat Transport System
AECL1024 x 768255 KB
19980103_011.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Heat Transport System 3D CADD rendering
AECL1024 x 768561 KB
20100100_Page_11_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 Nuclear Systems Schematic
AECL372 x 34023 KB
20100100_Page_15_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 Heat Transport System Layout
AECL1428 x 1726147 KB
20100100_Page_16_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 Headers/Upper Feeders Modules
AECL2555 x 741163 KB
CANDU_HTS_Shutdown_Cooling.jpgThumbnail Heat Transport System
1364 x 886190 KB
Chapter13-image47.jpegThumbnail RD-14M schematic
UNENE428 x 482160 KB
Chapter13-image53.pngThumbnail HTS layout
UNENE763 x 7431255 KB
Chapter6-image003a.gifThumbnail CANDU 6 primary and shutdown cooling loops
UNENE1280 x 72069 KB
Chapter6-image003b.gifThumbnail CANDU 6 cooling loops in containment - 3D view
UNENE1280 x 720132 KB
Chapter6-image004a.gifThumbnail Typical CANDU reactor and heat transport system
UNENE1280 x 720138 KB
Chapter6-image004b.gifThumbnail Typical CANDU fuel channel
UNENE1280 x 72050 KB
Chapter6-image011.gifThumbnail Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) heat transport system
UNENE1280 x 72041 KB
Chapter6-image012.gifThumbnail Douglas Point heat transport system
UNENE1280 x 72028 KB
Chapter6-image013.gifThumbnail Pickering A heat transport system
UNENE1280 x 72045 KB
Chapter6-image014.gifThumbnail Bruce heat transport system
UNENE1280 x 72053 KB
Chapter6-image015.gifThumbnail Darlington heat transport system
UNENE1280 x 72052 KB
Chapter6-image016.gifThumbnail ACR-1000 heat transport system
UNENE1280 x 72060 KB
Chapter6-image017.gifThumbnail CANDU BLW heat transport system
UNENE1280 x 720126 KB
Chapter6-image018.gifThumbnail CANDU OCR heat transport system
UNENE1280 x 720107 KB
Chapter8-image13.jpegThumbnail Simplified heat transport and moderator circuits
UNENE470 x 72442 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 33100 Main Heat Transport System ‎(8)
19980103_008.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Steam Generator
AECL1024 x 768190 KB
970822-111 Fig 8.6.jpgThumbnail Steam Generator for 600 MW(e) N.P.S.
634 x 920180 KB
Chapter2-image12.jpegThumbnail Steam generator for CANDU system
UNENE539 x 90281 KB
Chapter6-image009.gifThumbnail Typical primary pump design
UNENE1280 x 720111 KB
Chapter6-image010.gifThumbnail CANDU steam generator design evolution
UNENE1280 x 72066 KB
Chapter8-image18.jpegThumbnail SG heat duty diagram
Temperature vs. distance through the steam generator.
UNENE2002 x 1418126 KB
Chapter8-image19.jpegThumbnail PWR SG
Steam generator for PWR.
UNENE539 x 91696 KB
Stm_Gen.jpgThumbnail CANDU Steam Generator
614 x 874122 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 33300 Primary Heat Transport Auxiliaries ‎(5)
19980103_013.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Heat Transport System Auxiliaries
AECL1024 x 768325 KB
19980103_014.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 D2O Management
AECL1024 x 768283 KB
Chapter15-image2.pngThumbnail PHT purification loop
Simplified flow diagram of a PHT purification loop.
UNENE470 x 42620 KB
Chapter6-image008.gifThumbnail Typical pressurizer design
UNENE1280 x 72077 KB
Chapter8-image15.jpegThumbnail HTS purification schematic
Heat transport purification and feed system
UNENE1358 x 1077246 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 33400 Cooling Systems ‎(5)
19980105_013.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Emergency Core Cooling Systems
AECL1024 x 768351 KB
CANDU_SDS2_Flowsheet.jpgThumbnail CANDU SDS2 Flowsheet
897 x 686124 KB
Chapter13-image38.jpegThumbnail Shutdown cooling system
UNENE1429 x 1060204 KB
Chapter8-image16.jpegThumbnail SDCS
Shutdown cooling system
UNENE1930 x 1611182 KB
Chapter8-image8.jpegThumbnail Shutdown Cooling System 2(SDS2)
UNENE1023 x 901151 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 35000 Fuel Transfer and Storage ‎(29)
19980102_014.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Fuelling Machine
AECL1024 x 768672 KB
19980102_015.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Fuel Flow Pathway
AECL1024 x 768284 KB
19980102_016.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 - Fuelling Systems
AECL1024 x 768444 KB
Chapter19-image004.jpgThumbnail Flow of fuel through a CANDU reactor
UNENE624 x 55434 KB
Chapter19-image005.jpgThumbnail A typical Irradiated Fuel Bay
UNENE434 x 51442 KB
Chapter19-image006.jpgThumbnail Overview of MACSTOR
UNENE624 x 37127 KB
Chapter19-image007.jpgThumbnail Basket for dry storage of fuel
UNENE624 x 43034 KB
Chapter19-image008.jpgThumbnail Concept of a Deep Geological Repository
UNENE624 x 61934 KB
Chapter19-image009.pngThumbnail Containers for permanent disposal of irradiated fuel
UNENE643 x 40151 KB
Chapter20-image001.jpgThumbnail Fuel Handling
Figure 1 Fuel handling and storage system
UNENE1320 x 944370 KB
Chapter20-image002.jpgThumbnail Fuel Handling
Figure 2 Fuel handling and storage sequence
UNENE1406 x 1240250 KB
Chapter20-image003.jpgThumbnail Fuel Transfer
Figure 3 New fuel transfer equipment
UNENE1792 x 1189544 KB
Chapter20-image004.jpgThumbnail Fuel Transfer
Figure 4 New fuel transfer mechanism
UNENE1842 x 1050387 KB
Chapter20-image005.jpgThumbnail Fuel Changing
Figure 5 Fuel changing equipment
UNENE1320 x 996312 KB
Chapter20-image006.jpgThumbnail Fuelling machine head
Figure 6 Fuelling machine head
UNENE1320 x 954254 KB
Chapter20-image007.jpgThumbnail Fuelling Machine
Figure 7 Front end of fuelling machine
UNENE1794 x 1318690 KB
Chapter20-image008.jpgThumbnail Ram Assembly
Figure 8 Ram assembly – exploded view
UNENE1503 x 1724463 KB
Chapter20-image009.jpgThumbnail Ram Adapter
Figure 9 Ram adapter and operation
UNENE1433 x 1858769 KB
Chapter20-image010.jpgThumbnail Fuelling Machine Snout Plug
Figure 10 Fuelling machine snout plug
UNENE1756 x 1289619 KB
Chapter20-image011.jpgThumbnail Carriage Assembly
Figure 11 Carriage assembly
UNENE1320 x 1747590 KB
Chapter20-image012.jpgThumbnail Fuel Changing Sequence
Figure 12 Fuel changing sequence
UNENE1320 x 1626562 KB
Chapter20-image013.jpgThumbnail Spent Fuel Discharge Equipment
Figure 13 Spent fuel discharge equipment
UNENE1917 x 2397595 KB
Chapter20-image014.jpgThumbnail Spent Fuel Transfer Equipment
Figure 14 Spent fuel transfer equipment
UNENE2557 x 2002707 KB
Chapter20-image015.jpgThumbnail Failed fuel Canning Equipment
Figure 15 Failed fuel canning equipment
UNENE1452 x 1826483 KB
Chapter8-image10.jpegThumbnail Reactor face with fueling machine
UNENE790 x 701399 KB
Chapter8-image11.jpegThumbnail Typical refueling machine and bridge
UNENE1059 x 1050247 KB
Chapter8-image12.jpegThumbnail Orientation of refueling machine with respect to reactor
UNENE968 x 896220 KB
Douglas Point fuelling machine.pngThumbnail Douglas Point Fuelling Machine
OPG4195 x 30001966 KB
NPD-FM-Drawings-Hayter.pdfNPD Fueling Machine Drawings
Miscellaneous NPD Fueling Machine Drawings - overall system and components.  48 drawings in all, circa 1960.
OPG5968 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 37000 Fuel ‎(75)
19980101_018.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Fuel in Fuel Channel
AECL1024 x 768129 KB
19980101_019.jpgThumbnail PWR Fuel Bundle
AECL1024 x 768321 KB
19980101_020.jpgThumbnail CANDU Fuel Bundle - 37 Element
AECL1024 x 768300 KB
19980101_021.jpgThumbnail CANDU Fuel Bundle - 37 Element
AECL1024 x 768245 KB
19980101_022.jpgThumbnail CANDU Fuel Bundle - 37 Element
AECL1024 x 768298 KB
20100100_Page_14_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 CANFLEX ACR Fuel Bundle
AECL1275 x 95990 KB
Chapter13-image13.emfThumbnail NRX fuel section cross section
UNENE385 x 265163 KB
Chapter17-image1.pngThumbnail 37-element CANDU fuel bundle
UNENE774 x 542128 KB
Chapter2-image17.jpegThumbnail ACR CANFLEX fuel bundles
UNENE659 x 38271 KB
Chapter6-image004c.gifThumbnail Typical CANDU fuel bundle
UNENE1280 x 720130 KB
Douglas Point fuel 01.pngThumbnail Douglas Point Fuel Bundle
OPG3736 x 26471421 KB
Douglas Point fuel 02.pngThumbnail Douglas Point Fuel Bundle
OPG4268 x 20112365 KB
Douglas Point fuel 03.pngThumbnail Douglas Point Fuel Bundle - Cross Section
OPG3496 x 27511658 KB
fig000_AECL_Symbol_Pick_28.jpgThe figures denoted by AECL Symbol
The figures denoted by 37000-fuel below form a "Historical and Pictorial Record of Canada's Power Reactor Fuel Bundle Design and Development", edited by R.D. Page and A.J. Langdon, photography by C. Baskin, CRNL. This pictorial record of Canada's power reactor fuel bundles was prepared to historically record the evolution of the power reactor fuel over the years. No one report issued over the years has been able to describe in detail the various changes that these pictures portray. It should be noted that the record does not include WR-1 type fuel or special irradiation of assemblies. "A picture speaks a thousand words".
AECL1093 x 1293198 KB
fig001_3_inch_end_of_19_el_bundle.jpgThumbnail End-Plates of the First 3 Inch Diameter Fuel Bundles
This is a photo of the end-plates of the first 3 inch diameter fuel bundles. These were the first 19 element fuel bundles built in Canada and irradiated in the E-20 loop (now U-2) in the NRU reactor. They had to have a diameter of 3 inches to fit in the thick wall pressure tube installed in the E-20 loop to commission it. As the knowledge of the material properties of Zircaloy-2 was not well known at that time, the wall thickness was increased to be conservative. The bundles were assembled by screws as the method of welding the end-plates had not been developed. (circa 1959-60).
AECL1402 x 782122 KB
fig002_NPD_7_el_Riveted.jpgThumbnail NPD-7 Element End View
This is an end view of one of the first NPD 7-element fuel bundles. They were assembled by riveting the elements to the thick end-plates. Later Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG) welding was used and later resistance welding to thinner end-plates, thus improving the neutron efficiency of the fuel.
AECL1224 x 1209152 KB
fig003_NPD_7_el_Riveted_Long.jpgThumbnail NPD-7 Element Riveted
This NPD 7 element riveted bundle is in its classic autoclave black.
AECL1396 x 108990 KB
fig004_NPD_7_end_welded.jpgThumbnail NPD-7 Element End View
This end plate on the NPD 7 is now assembled by TIG welding to a thinner end plate.
AECL832 x 89074 KB
fig005_NPD_7_long.jpgThumbnail NPD-7 Element T.I.G. Welded
In some colour photos the rusty colour on the surface of fuel bundles is from endurance testing in the lab and comes from the iron oxide from the carbon steel piping, even though the bundles rested in a Zircaloy pressure tube.
AECL1140 x 74470 KB
fig006_NPD_19_end.jpgThumbnail NPD 19 Element End View
The end view of a NPD 19 element assembled by TIG welding.
AECL1104 x 1099135 KB
fig007_NPD_19_element.jpgThumbnail NPD 19 Element
The 19 elements are spaced by two wires wrapped around each elements and spot welded to the sheaths, one turn per length of element.
AECL1384 x 67982 KB
fig008_Douglas_Point_19 el_wire_wrap.jpgThumbnail Douglas Point 19-Element Wire Wrap
The Douglas point 19 element bundles were wire wrapped but the helix around the element was doubled. Thicker wires were attached at each end to act as bearing pads so the bundles could slide through the pressure tubes with minimum wear to the tubes.
AECL1390 x 71086 KB
fig009_DP_19_el_Colour.jpgThumbnail Douglas Point 19-Element Wire Wrap
An example of the DP 19 element bundle covered in the iron oxide and showing the extra wire pads which are partially ground to a flat surface contoured to fit the pressure tube.
AECL1119 x 77666 KB
fig010_NPD-DP_19_Element.jpgThumbnail NPD and DP 19 Element Wire Wrap
A comparison of the NPD & DP 19 element bundles. Note that the DP bundle now assembled by resistance welded of end plates to the elements.
AECL1284 x 1103154 KB
fig011_AMF_Twisted_Tape_Brazed_19_el.jpgThumbnail AMF Brazed Twisted Tape 19 Element
During the development of the wire wrapped 19 element bundles for Douglas Point, there was growing concern of the possibility of inter-element fretting of the thin .015 in. thick fuel sheaths. A study was launched to come up with different ways of spacing the elements and also to delete the end plates. The following bundles are an illustration of what were considered. The first example is the twisted tape bundle for so-called better mixing. The center element was made strong enough to take the fueling machine loads and the outer elements were recessed for the fueling machine side stops. Did not graduate.
AECL1336 x 65178 KB
fig012_Welded_Belly_Band_AMF_bundle.jpgThumbnail Welded-Belly Banded AMF Bundle
Another design during this period was held together by belly bands and used welded spacers. Did not graduate. AMF stands for American Machine and Foundry who was contracted to produce Uranium metal fuel for NRX and NRU Research reactors at Chalk River. They were later bought out by Canadian Westinghouse.
AECL1411 x 789108 KB
fig013_Early_AMF_Brazed_Bundle.jpgThumbnail Early Brazed - AMF 19 Element
Another design using brazing of the ferrule spacers to the elements were tried. Again did not graduate. But Zr-Be brazing was introduced.
AECL1371 x 45058 KB
fig014_Domed_End_Cap_Brazed_AMF_Bundle.jpgThumbnail Domed End Cap Brazed AMF Bundle
To reduce the amount of Zircaloy in the end caps of the elements, thin domed end caps brazed to the sheath were tried. They had insulating pellets inside. The bundle was assembled with two planes of fixed spacers and bearing pads on the outside elements. All brazed to the sheath using both resistance heating and induction heating to melt the braze alloy.
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fig015_Domed_End_Cap_End_View_with_fixed_brazed spacers.jpgThumbnail Domed End Cap End View
The end view of the above bundle with fixed brazed spacers and domed end caps.
AECL1130 x 1108106 KB
fig016_Two_Fixed_Plane_Brazed_AMF_19el_Bundle.jpgThumbnail 2 Fixed Plane Resistance Brazed 19 Element AMF
This bundle has two planes of spacers. The domed end caps have been replaced by normal solid ones to better survive the fueling machine side stop loads and remove the need of brazing the elements ends. The bearing pads were now standard.
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fig017_End_View_2_Fixed_Plane_Brazed_19 el.jpgThumbnail 2 Fixed Plane Brazed AMF 19 Element End View
The end view of the same bundle. The chamfer on the end caps was to accommodate the chamfer on the side stops.
AECL1091 x 106093 KB
fig018_DP_Brazed_Dev_Replacement_Bundle.jpgThumbnail D.P. Replacement Brazed Split Spacer
After a number of defects during irradiation in NRU the design was abandoned and end plates were reintroduced. This bundle had no spacing and was not irradiate.
AECL1367 x 72796 KB
fig019_DP_ Dev_small_mid_plane_Bearing_Pads.jpgThumbnail D.P. Development Brazed Split Spacer
The design of the replacement bundle for Douglas Point and NPD was slowly beginning to make progress. The fixed plane was dropped and replaced with a split spacer and a small pad in the center plane only. Thus the elements could now expand independently.
AECL1383 x 88488 KB
fig020_Tube-in-Shell_Vib_Compacted_Bundle.jpgThumbnail Tube in Shell
Whilst all this development was going on a radical bundle design was tried. It was called the Tube-in Shell bundle. Instead of passing the heavy water coolant over and around the fuel, it was decided to try passing the cooling water through the fuel. This bundle was filled with vibratory compacted UO2 powder, thus it had relatively low Uranium density compared to the sintered pellets. It was all brazed in assembly which was very difficult. After two defects during irradiation the design was dropped from further development. It had a major weakness with respect to heat transfer, the coolant tubes had excellent heat removal but the eccentric outer annulus was very poor.
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fig021_End_View_Tube-in-Shell.jpgThumbnail End View Tube in Shell
This an end view of the Tube-in-Shell bundle. The traces of the braze alloy are evident around the tube ends.
AECL1171 x 1129133 KB
fig022_DP_Brazed_Split_Spacer_Development_Bundle.jpgThumbnail D.P. Replacement Brazed Split Spacer
The design has now matured and the spilt-spacers are now canted to prevent interlocking and a full length bearing pad has been added in the center plane. This bundle has seen endurance testing in the Sheridan Park loop and the braze alloy has a higher corrosion rate than the normal Zircaloy, thus the white appearance at the joints of the bearing pads.
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fig023_DP_19_el_End_View.jpgThumbnail Douglas Point 19-Element End View
This is a Westinghouse made bundle after they took over from AMF. Note the grounding electrode marks on the end caps from resistance welding of the end plate to the elements.
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fig024_CGE_Development_bundles.jpgThumbnail Development Bundles
These end views are of two CGE development bundles where the use of welded bearing pads and spacers were tried. Also a variant of the end plate in two pieces. Note that the inner element caps are flat. This design did not go into production.
AECL1404 x 856124 KB
fig025_DP_Production_Brazed_split_spacer.jpgThumbnail D.P. Production Brazed Split Spacer
The final production bundle was a brazed split spacer design with three planes of bearing pads. This design of bundle was used as replacement fuel for both Douglas Point and NPD power reactors in Canada. It was also used in Kanupp, Pakistan and Rapp I & II, India.
AECL1397 x 75777 KB
fig026_NPD_7-19-DP_Brazed_Split_Spacer.jpgThumbnail NPD-7, D.P. 19 Wire Wrap and D.P. 19 Brazed Split Spacer
AECL1297 x 991117 KB
fig027_NPD_7-19_DP_19_and_spilt_spacer_bundle.jpgThumbnail NPD-7 W.W., NPD-19 Douglas Point-19 W.W. D.P. 19, 3 Fixed Plane DP-19 Split Spacer
AECL1392 x 643110 KB
fig101_Early_wire_wrap_28_el.jpgThumbnail Wire Wrap 28 Element - Development
During the development of the replacement D.P. design there were two other reactor fuel projects being developed. They were fuel bundles for Pickering A and Gentilly - 1 Boiling Light Water (BLW) reactors. Both these reactors were going to use 4 inch diameter pressure tubes vs the 3.25 inch of D.P. & NPD. Keeping the same size of elements as the D.P. 19 and .050 inch spacing between elements, the 28 element Pickering design was developed. CGE still preferred the wire warp rather than the toxic Beryllium braze. This wire wrap design was not favoured.
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fig102_End_view_28_el_wire_wrap.jpgThumbnail Wire Wrap 28 Element End View
The end plate for the 28 element Pickering bundle took many forms which are illustrated in the following photos.
AECL1236 x 1113115 KB
fig103_28_el_dev_bundle_Flexible_spacers.jpgThumbnail 28 Element Development Bundle Flexible Spacer
CGE tried very hard to come up with a satisfactory design using only welding as the means of assembly. The angled bearing pads were welded at two points. The flexible spacer did not survive irradiation or endurance testing. The lack of redundancy in the bearing pads received a negative point in the design review. The end plate design changed again.
AECL1322 x 94497 KB
fig104_28_el_welded_Dev_Bundle.jpgThumbnail 28 Element Development Bundle
28 element with welded spacers and bearing pads. Note that one of the pads welds have failed and the pad is missing. Note two piece end plate.
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fig105_28_el_dev_bundle_end_view.jpgThumbnail 28 Element Development Bundle End View
A close up of the two piece end plate on the welded 28 element development bundle.
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fig106_CGE_28_el_straight_welded_bearing_pads_dev_bundle.jpgThumbnail 28 Element Development Bundle Welded Bearing Pads
CGE still trying to develop the welded 28 element bundle, now with welded straight pads and more than one plane of inter-element spacers. Single piece end plate.
AECL1380 x 98590 KB
fig107_28_el_Pickering_production_bundle.jpgThumbnail Pickering 28 Element
Westinghouse came up with the final production design of the Pickering 28 element bundle. It had brazed spacers and bearing pads and a classical simple end plate design proposed by an accountant.
AECL1232 x 72294 KB
fig108_CGE_28_el_brazed_pad_dev_bundle.jpgThumbnail 28 Element Development Bundle
GE was now using brazed pads and spacers and again a different end plate design. CGE traded wire wrap technology with Westinghouse for brazed technology.
AECL1360 x 92591 KB
fig109_Pickering_28_inside_a_PT.jpgThumbnail 28 Element Pickering Production in P.T.
A closeup of the classical Pickering 28 element end plate with the bundle inside a Zr-Nb 2.5% pressure tube. Note the thickness of the pressure tube. The hoop stress on pressure vessels is directly proportional to diameter; hence the small diameter pressure tube walls can be much thinner than the thick walls required for a PWR pressure vessel. Thin Zr walls do not absorb many neutrons; hence the moderator can be placed outside the fuel area in a low pressure calandria. This is the essence of pressure tube reactor design vs. pressure vessel reactor design.
AECL1356 x 1085127 KB
fig110_Gentilly-1_BLW_18_el_CST.jpgThumbnail Gentilly-1 with CST
The fuel for the Gentilly-1 was maximized by large diameter elements with a central structural tube to hold the 10 bundles in the vertical pressure tubes. The fuel worked well but, with the success of Pickering proven by the mid 70's, the 10 % (approximately) lower TUEC of BLW-type reactors was not big enough to warrant continued operation nor to justify the funding of continued development. In addition, G-1 experienced control problems (related to coolant voiding and the use of direct cycle heat transport system) and serious service water system corrosion problems. Hence, the plant was shut down and decommissioned.
AECL2444 x 1643487 KB
fig111_Early_37_el_bundle.jpgThumbnail Early Wire Wrap 37 Element
As a backup design to the 28 element Pickering bundle, a 37 element was proposed. This was a hand built solid steel bundle with mechanical wire wrap. The 37 element was later developed for the Bruce and 600 Mwe reactors.
AECL1267 x 1124116 KB
fig112_Gentilly-1_BLW_18_el.jpgThumbnail Gentilly-1
B&W of Gentilly -1 Boiling Light Water 18 element fuel bundle.
AECL1387 x 75378 KB
fig113_Bruce_28_element.jpgThumbnail Bruce 28 Element Bundle
nitially it was thought that the 28 element bundle would meet Bruce requirements but when the design of the reactor was uprated, it was necessary to develope the Bruce 37 element, to meet the channel power requirements. Note the staggered plane of bearing pads at end of the bundle to meet Bruce Channel requirements.
AECL1372 x 100795 KB
fig114_Bruce_37_element_bundle.jpgThumbnail Bruce 37 Element Bundle
The Bruce 37 element had minor differences from the other 37 elements that were developed. The end caps were squared and the bearing pads were staggered at each end of the bundle.
AECL2288 x 1389322 KB
fig115_End_view_Bruce_37_el.jpgThumbnail Bruce 37 Element Bundle End View
The end view of the Bruce 37 element bundle. Note the grounding electrode marks of the resistance welder.
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fig116_Bruce_37_el_hands.jpgThumbnail Bruce 37 Element Bundle with Hands
This photo gives a perspective of the size of the Bruce 37 element bundle relative to the man’s gloved hands. The bundles weighed approx 50 lbs and were 49.5 cm long and 10 cm in diameter.
AECL1105 x 81199 KB
fig117_End_view_Bruce_booster_rod.jpgThumbnail Bruce Booster End View
The Bruce booster rods were designed to extend the window of the period shut before the Xenon poison prevented reactor startup. They were manufactured from enriched uranium Zircaloy alloy which was co-extruded with Zircaloy. The six 18 element bundles in an assembly was held together by ferrules and belly bands and strung together on a central structural tube. They had limited use in Bruce and were withdrawn from service.
AECL1093 x 1047135 KB
fig118a_Bruce_booster_37_el.jpgThumbnail Bruce 37 Element Bundle and Booster
The comparative sizes of a Bruce Booster bundle and the 37 element bundle.
AECL1005 x 1074125 KB
fig118b_Bruce_ Booster_ rod_ Assembly.jpgThumbnail Bruce Booster Rod Assembly
This drawing of the Bruce Booster Rod Assembly demonstrates how it is assembled into a complete rod of six bundles.
AECL2156 x 2740564 KB
fig119_Gentilly-2_600_MWe_37_el.jpgThumbnail Gentilly-2 600 MWe Reactor 37 Element Bundle
The Gentilly 2 600 MWe reactor 37 element bundle differed from the Bruce 37 in that the end caps were conical to accommodate the fueling machine side stops and the end bearing pads were not staggered. When the Bruce 37 and the 600 MWe 37 were irradiated together, this irradiation was paid for by the Common Programme between Ontario Hydro and AECL. This programme grew into the CANDEV (CANDU Development) programme funded by the utilities and AECL. This was later formalized into the CANDU Owners Group (COG) programme of all the nuclear utilities, this supported and funded common development programmes. The 600 MWe 37 element fuel bundle is been used in the folowing reactors: Gentilly-2, Quebec; Point Lepreau, New Brunswick; Cordoba, Argentina; Cernavoda, Romania; four reactors at Wolsung, South Korea; and two in China.
AECL1374 x 703120 KB
fig120_Bruce_booster_Pickering_28_Bruce600_MWe_37_els.jpgThumbnail Gentilly-1 with CST, Pickering 28 Element, Bruce 37 Element, Gentilly-2/600 MW(e) Prototype
A comparison of the Bruce booster bundle with the power reactor fuel bundles for Pickering A & B, Bruce A& B 37 element and the Gentilly-2 600 MWe reactors.
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fig121_Bruce_Fueling_Machine.jpgThumbnail Bruce Fueling Machine
AECL1492 x 1182210 KB
fig122_Fuel_Eng_Coat_of_Arms.jpgThumbnail Fuel Engineering Coat of Arms
The coat of arms is protected by AECL Proprietary and Final Preliminary Draft. The shield is divided into quadrants by red tape. Superimposed on it is a bastard bundle. The upper left quadrant represents the engineering terms of fuel behaviour. The upper right quadrant represents terms developed in manufacture of fuel. The lower left quadrant represents terms of heat transfer and corrosion. The lower right quadrant represents the mystical chemical symbols of the coolant chemistry. Above the shield is the Omnipresent bull moose of our founder Dr. Ara J. Mooradian. Superimposed is a bird cage representing a fuel carriage. Above which is the loop rampant and unstable. Underneath the shield is the banner burnt at both ends by Burnup and Burnout. Upon which the motto is inscribed ‘Caveat Emptor’ - ‘Let the buyer beware’ or ‘If it fails do not blame us!’ Below which rests ‘The never completed final report’.
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fig201_Double_Length_Bundle.jpgThumbnail Double Length Bundle
There was always the question of double length bundles as the fueling machines magazines were two bundles long. I always had great doubts of it’s practicability. Late in the programme a couple of bundles were built. The dimensional stability of the bundle was poor due the long elements. There was a large problem in trying to find a means of making a rigid plane in the center plane of the bundle to improve the stability of the elements. The handling of the 100 lb. bundle presented too many problems both in manufacture and at the stations. It was not developed further.
AECL992 x 1286120 KB
fig202_25_ton_flask_over_NRU.jpgThumbnail 25-Ton Flask over NRU Research Reactor
The 25 ton flask is used to remove irradiated fuel strings from the U-2 and U-1 loop test sections in the NRU research reactor at Chalk River.
AECL1154 x 1443241 KB
fig203_J-rod_Flask_over_NRU.jpgThumbnail J-Rod Flask over NRU Research Reactor
The NRU reactor was the first reactor in the world to use on-power fueling. That was way back in the late 1950's. It is still operating as of August 2001 but it is reaching the end of its useful live and needs replacing. All the power reactor fuel bundles were tested for performance in this reactor, either in the U-2 or U-1 light water cooled loops. Each loop test section could accommodate six bundles vertically in a string.
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fig204_Universal_Hot_Cells.jpgThumbnail Universal Hot Cells
The Universal Hot Cells were used to examine irradiated fuel bundles and to disassemble the strings of fuel. The fuel bundles were examined and measured for dimensional changes and individual elements were cut out of the bundles for more detailed examinations.
AECL1441 x 1183264 KB
fig205_Bundle in Hot Cells.jpgThumbnail Bundle in Hot Cells
A 19 element fuel bundle being remotely moved by special tongs in the hot cells. This bundle had been irradiated to over 8,500 Mwd/tonne U at a heat rating of 43 W/cm. Note the circumferential ridges at the UO2 pellet interfaces.
AECL1437 x 1125143 KB
fig206_Milling_the_end_plate.jpgThumbnail Milling the End Plate
To disassemble a fuel bundle in the hot cells remotely, the end plates were cut apart by a milling machine.
AECL1437 x 1114156 KB
fig207_Fuel_bundle_carriage.jpgThumbnail Fuel Bundle Carriage
For fuel bundle testing in the verticle loops at NRU, six fuel bundles were assembled via a fuel carriage tensioned at one end with a spring, sometimes called a ‘birdcage’. The six bundle assembly was essentially 1/2 of a CANDU fuel channel.
AECL1432 x 1049139 KB
fig208_Bundle_strength_testing.jpgThumbnail Bundle Strength Testing
Each type of bundle was strength tested in a compression test rig at temperature before and after irradiation. Irradiated bundles were some times stronger than the limit of the machine capabilities. These test was necessary to ensure that the bundles could withstand the fueling machine and hydraulic loads.
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fig901_Fuel_Bundle_Development.jpgThumbnail Development of Fuel Bundle for Power Reactor
Generic diagram of what the central role that fuel played and what teams had to coordinate to get the various fuel programmes designed and into production.
AECL2860 x 2208749 KB
fig902_Fuel_Engineering_center_of_Universe.jpgThumbnail AECL Fuel Development Organisation
Specific diagram of what the central role that fuel played and what teams had to coordinate to get the various fuel programmes designed and into production.
AECL2838 x 2241571 KB
Spent_Fuel_Handling.jpgThumbnail Spent Fuel Handling
1163 x 886402 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 38000 Heavy Water Management ‎(1)
19980103_015.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Heavy Water Shipment
AECL1024 x 768256 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 40000 Turbine, Generator and Auxiliaries ‎(11)
19980102_003.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Turbine Rotor
AECL1024 x 768275 KB
19980104_003.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Main Steam System
AECL1024 x 768248 KB
19980104_004.jpgThumbnail Point Lepreau Turbine-Generator
AECL1024 x 768487 KB
19980104_005.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Turbine-Generator, Feedwater
AECL1024 x 768233 KB
19980104_006.jpgThumbnail Generic - Station Heat Balance
AECL1024 x 76884 KB
20100100_Page_32_Image_0001.jpgThumbnail ACR-1000 Turbine Generator and Auxiliaries Flow Diagram
AECL1639 x 1136111 KB
Chapter2-image13.jpegThumbnail 600 MW steam turbine for nuclear unit
UNENE1016 x 704480 KB
Chapter2-image14.jpegThumbnail Turbine generator for nuclear unit
UNENE994 x 707423 KB
Chapter6-image054.gifThumbnail Typical advanced PWR secondary cooling system
UNENE1280 x 72064 KB
Chapter6-image055.gifThumbnail Typical CANDU 6 secondary cooling system
UNENE1280 x 72069 KB
Chapter8-image21.jpegThumbnail Secondary side schematic
Steam and feedwater system for a CANDU reactor.
UNENE1166 x 951189 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 50000 Electric Power Systems ‎(2)
19980104_009.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Connections to Grid & Plant
AECL1024 x 768181 KB
19980104_010.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Station Power Distribution Systems
AECL1024 x 768274 KB
Expand/Collapse SI : 60000 Instrumentation and Control ‎(13)
19980104_007.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Overall Station Control
AECL1024 x 768320 KB
19980106_004.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Control Computer Schematic
AECL1024 x 768194 KB
19980106_005.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Logic Blocks
AECL1024 x 768325 KB
19980106_006.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Instrumentation
AECL1024 x 768338 KB
19980106_007.jpgThumbnail CANDU Self-Powered Flux Detectors
AECL1024 x 768192 KB
19980106_008.jpgThumbnail CANDU Ion Chambers
AECL1024 x 768268 KB
19980106_009.jpgThumbnail CANDU6 Control Actions
AECL1024 x 768350 KB
19980106_010.jpgThumbnail CANDU Zone Control Unit
AECL1024 x 768190 KB
Chapter1-image11.jpegThumbnail Lagging and leading plant operation
UNENE1180 x 1427198 KB
Chapter9-image14.jpegThumbnail Boiler level control
Three element steam generator level control system (courtesy of NB Power).
UNENE1211 x 861192 KB
Chapter9-image15.jpegThumbnail SG control
Steam generator level alarms and set points (courtesy of NB Power).
UNENE1363 x 1081341 KB
Chapter9-image2.jpegThumbnail Basic plant control system
UNENE1431 x 1272281 KB
RMdeck-Bruce B.jpgThumbnail Bruce B Reactivity Deck
OPG2610 x 17451067 KB